上海体育学院学报

2018, (06) 109-112,118

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长时间高原训练对优秀男子赛艇运动员运动能力的影响
Effect of Long-term Altitude Training on Exercise Performance of Elite Male Rowers

高欢;高炳宏;孟志军
GAO Huan; GAO Binghong; MENG Zhijun

摘要(Abstract):

目的:以优秀男子赛艇运动员为研究对象,探讨长时间高原训练对其运动能力的影响。方法:本次8周高原训练的主要内容为中低强度有氧耐力训练,每7天为1个训练周,每个训练周包含2个小周期。分别在高原训练前、高原训练结束后第1周、高原训练结束后第3周进行运动能力、身体成分、身体质量等指标的测试。结果:①与高原训练前比较,高原训练后运动员的体质量未发生显著变化,但体脂率显著降低,血红蛋白浓度显著升高;②下高原后第1周最大摄氧量显著提高,但专项能力测试中的测功仪2 km成绩(t2 km),递增负荷测试2 mmol·L-1、4 mmol·L-1乳酸对应的功率(W2W4)均未见显著改善;至下高原后第3周,W2有显著提高的趋势,W4较高原前显著提高,t2 km亦显著改善。结论:以中低强度有氧训练为主的8周长时间高原训练可显著改善赛艇运动员的最大摄氧量、无氧阈水平和专项最大运动能力,但不会对体质量造成显著影响;与下高原后第1周比较,下高原后第3周表现出更好的竞技状态。
Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of long altitude training on exercise performance of elite male rowers.Methods: The altitude training (altitude≈2.3 km) last eight weeks and was divided into two phases, seven days a training week. Every training-week contained two small training steps. Before and after altitude training, the body weight, body composition, etc. were measured.Results: (1) Compared with the pre-altitude training, the body weight had no obvious change, but both the fat decreased and hemoglobin concentration increased significantly. (2) In the test of 1st week after altitude training, the 2 km all-out and anaerobic threshold showed no significant change except maximal oxygen uptake. However, in the test of third week after altitude, the 2 km all-out time and anaerobic threshold power increased significantly.Conclusions: the 8-week-long and low-middle intensity aerobic altitude training can improve the VO2 max, anaerobic threshold and maximal specific performance of elite rowers effectively but no significant influence on body weight. After altitude training, rowers show a better competitive state in the third week than the first week.

关键词(KeyWords): 高原训练;优秀赛艇运动员;运动性能;最大摄氧量;无氧阈水平
altitude training;elite rower;exercise performance;maximun oxygen absorption;anaerobic threshold

Abstract:

Keywords:

基金项目(Foundation): 上海市科学技术委员会重点攻关项目(15dz1208001);国家体育总局重点研究领域课题(2014B067)

作者(Author): 高欢;高炳宏;孟志军
GAO Huan; GAO Binghong; MENG Zhijun

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