上海体育学院学报

2020, (03) 73-83

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从“文斗”到“武斗”:礼法约束下“斗秧歌”田野调查
From Intellectual Fighting to Force Fighting: A Field Investigation of Fighting Yangko under the Etiquette Constraints

滕希望;郭玉成
TENG Xiwang; GUO Yucheng

摘要(Abstract):

以海阳大秧歌中的民俗武术活动“斗秧歌”仪式为个案,运用田野调查等方法,从民俗学视角对“斗秧歌”的过程及民俗语境进行分析。认为:海阳大秧歌吸收了军事武术中的兵法谋略与民间武术技术动作,族群生存斗争与比武较技是“斗秧歌”吸收武术元素的重要动因,其逻辑形式表现为礼法约束下由“文斗”到“武斗”的递进,“文斗”体现兵法谋略智慧,武术是“武斗”的主要支撑力量。“斗秧歌”受到礼法约束,以强化乡间社会秩序的稳定,反映了中国传统社会治理中的礼法并施思想。剖析其民俗语境发现,“斗秧歌”是族群生存抗争的仪式手段、护卫生存环境的民间演习、展示个人魅力的艺术舞台,也是地域武术传播的民俗载体。武术与“斗秧歌”之间的融合互动关系,显示武术与民俗活动深厚的历史渊源及武术具有的多元价值属性。
Taken the folk Wushu activity Fighting Yangko ritual in Haiyang Big Yangko as the individual case,a field investigation is used to describe its process and folklore context from the perspective of folklore interpretation.It is believed that Haiyang Big Yangko absorbs the tactics of military martial Wushu and the technical movements of folk Wushu;the survival struggle of ethnic groups and the competition of Wushu are the important reasons for Fighting Yangko to absorb Wushu elements;its logical form is manifested from the “intellectual fighting” to the “force fighting” progressively under the etiquette constraints.“Intellectual fighting” embodies the wisdom of the military strategy,while Wushu is an main supporting force of “force fighting”.Fighting Yangko is restricted by etiquette to strengthen the stability of rural social order,which reflects the combination of etiquette and law in traditional Chinese social governance.A deep description of its folklore context shows that Fighting Yangko is an ritual means of ethnic survival resistance,a folk military exercise to protect the living environment,a stage for displaying personal charm and a carrier of regional Wushu spread.The integration and interaction between Wushu and Fighting Yangko proves that Wushu and folk activities have a profound historical origin and the multiple value attributes in Wushu.

关键词(KeyWords): 海阳大秧歌;“斗秧歌”;武术;兵法;“文斗”;“武斗”
Haiyang Big Yangko;Fighting Yangko;Wushu;art of war;intellectual fighting;force fighting

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基金项目(Foundation): 国家社会科学基金重点项目(17ATY010)

作者(Author): 滕希望;郭玉成
TENG Xiwang; GUO Yucheng

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