上海体育学院学报

2019, (05) 58-66

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家庭代际关系对城市老年人锻炼行为决策的影响
The Influence of Family Inter-generational Relationship on Urban Elderly's Exercise Behavior Decision-making

王富百慧
WANG Fubaihui

摘要(Abstract):

代际关系是社会研究中衡量代际间有目的互动行为的重要内容,其中城市家庭代际关系与老年人健康的关系尤为重要。体育锻炼有助于改善老年人健康状况,但以往相关研究较多关注老年人锻炼的参与程度,忽视了家庭代际关系对老年人锻炼行为决策的影响。为此,基于代际团结理论,利用2016年中国老年社会追踪调查(CLASS)数据,分析家庭代际关系对城市老年人锻炼行为决策的影响。研究发现:代际团结的潜在因素对锻炼决策影响程度大于外显因素,各个维度的作用强度依次为共识、联系、情感、功能、规范。父辈对子辈支持的期待已从经济供给和生活照料转向情感满足,更为注重代际互动的质量而非形式。居住距离不再是阻碍代际决策互动的主要障碍,经常与子女见面的老年人参与锻炼的可能性提高1倍,观念认同、情感支持、亲密联系是子辈支持父辈锻炼决策的关键因素。代际团结的负向影响是有条件的“规范”冲突,具体表现为生活照料和隔代照料,为子辈提供家务支持挤压了父辈锻炼时间和精力,但挤压程度与其自身健康状况和支持频率有关,可以通过适度调整降低其不利影响。隔代照料是城市老年人参与锻炼的主要障碍,没有隔代照料负担的老年人锻炼参与的可能性是有照料负担老年人的1.22倍,成为传统家庭文化与现代家庭关系之间、父辈追求自身发展与子辈照料需求之间以及代际文化适应过程中最为突出的矛盾表现。
Inter-generational relationship is an important part of measuring inter-generational purposeful interactive behavior in social research, among which the relationship between urban family inter-generational relationships and the health of the elderly is especially crucial. Physical exercise helps improve the health of the elderly. Previous studies have focused on the participation of the elderly in physical exercise, but have largely overlooked the influence of family relationships on the decision-making process of the exercise behavior. Based on the theory of inter-generational solidarity, this study uses the 2016 China Longitudinal Aging Social Survey (CLASS) data to analyze the impact of family inter-generational relationships on the decision-making process of urban elderly's exercise behavior. We found that the underlying factors of inter-generational solidarity have more influences on the decision-making process of exercise of the urban elderly than the explicit factors, and the intensity sequence (from strong to weak) of all dimensions is consensus, connection, emotion, function and norm. The elder generation's expectation of the support from the younger generation has shifted from economic supply and care taking to emotional satisfaction and they pay more attention to the quality of inter-generational interaction rather than the form of it. Living distance is no longer a major obstacle for the decision-making process of the inter-generational interaction. The elderly who often meet with their children are twice as likely to participate in exercise. Conceptual identity, emotional support and intimate connections are the key factors that support the elder generation in making decisions to physical exercise. The negative impact of inter-generational solidarity is a conditional "normative" conflict, including the care taking of the elderly and the elder generation's care taking of their grandchildren. Providing housekeeping support for the younger generation squeezed the time and energy of the parents' exercise, but the degree is related to their health status and frequency of housekeeping support. The negative effects could be reduced through modest adjustments. Inter-generational caring is the main obstacle for urban elderly to participate in exercise. The possibility of exercise participation in the elderly without the burden of inter-generational caring is 1.22 times that of the elderly with the burden of it, which has become the most noticeable contradiction between the traditional family culture and modern family relations, the pursuit of the elder generation for self-development and the younger generation's care-taking needs, as well as in the adaptation process of inter-generational culture.

关键词(KeyWords): 老年人;锻炼行为;代际关系;代际团结;隔代照料
the elderly;physical exercise;inter-generational relationship;inter-generational solidarity;inter-generational caring

Abstract:

Keywords:

基金项目(Foundation): 国家社会科学基金资助青年项目(16CTY015);国家体育总局科技服务工作资助项目(2017B028)

作者(Author): 王富百慧
WANG Fubaihui

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