上海体育学院学报

2018, (06) 18-22,29

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体育运动中“习惯”的身体哲学解读——从梅洛-庞蒂到理查德·舒斯特曼
Body Philosophy Interpretation of “Habit” in Sports—From Merlea·Ponty to Richard·Shusterman

苑文静;张再林
YUAN Wenjing; ZHANG Zailin

摘要(Abstract):

现代体育运动所崇尚的运动习惯多囿于行为主义的条件反射运动。从身体哲学出发,透过梅洛-庞蒂的身体现象学可知,习惯并不是机械简单的刺激-反应动作,而是身体在身体图式的统摄下拓展知觉和空间范围、理解世界的过程。尽管梅洛-庞蒂所坚持的自足的身体使运动员实现了行为与比赛场域的统一,但这种身体观忽视了对有缺陷的习惯的反思。实用主义学者理查德·舒斯特曼批判了梅洛-庞蒂未经反思的习惯观点,将身体现象学与实用主义相结合,倡导用反思性身体意识审视身体习惯,帮助运动员在训练和比赛中发现、纠正错误的习惯行为。
The sport habit advocated by modern sports are confined by the conditioned reflex movement of behaviorism. From the body philosophy, through Merleau·Ponty's body phenomenology, we know that habit is not a simple mechanical stimulus-response action, instead, habit is a body expansion of space and perception, as well as a process of knowing the world, governed by the body schema. Although Merleau·Ponty's conception of body self-sufficient made athletes achieve the unity between the behaviors and playing area, he neglected the reflection on the wrong habits. The pragmatist Richard·Shusterman criticized Merleau·Ponty's view of non-reflection habits. By combining body phenomenology with pragmatism, Shusterman advocated reflective body consciousness to examine body habits, which could help the athletes identify and correct the wrong body behaviors in training and competitions.

关键词(KeyWords): 习惯;体育运动;身体图式;身体哲学;梅洛-庞蒂;理查德·舒斯特曼;知觉;反思性身体意识
habit;sports;body schema;body philosophy;Merleau·Ponty;Richard·Shusterman;perception;reflective body consciousness

Abstract:

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基金项目(Foundation): 国家社会科学基金资助项目(15BTY001)

作者(Author): 苑文静;张再林
YUAN Wenjing; ZHANG Zailin

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